Mosquitoes are insects belonging to the order Diptera, the True Flies. Like all True Flies, they have two wings, but unlike other flies, mosquito wings have scales. Female mosquitoes' mouthparts form a long piercing-sucking proboscis. Males differ from females by having feathery antennae and mouthparts not suitable for piercing skin. A mosquito's principal food is nectar or similar sugar source.
There are over 3,000 different species of mosquitoes throughout the world;
Mosquitoes are insects that have been around for more than 30 million years. Mosquitoes have a battery of sensors designed to track their prey, including:
Chemical sensors - mosquitoes can sense carbon dioxide and lactic acid up to 100 feet (36 meters) away. Mammals and birds gives off these gases as part of their normal breathing. Certain chemicals in sweat also seem to attract mosquitoes (people who don't sweat much don't get nearly as many mosquito bites).
Visual sensors - if you are wearing clothing that contrasts with the background, and especially if you move while wearing that clothing, mosquitoes can see you and zero in on you. It's a good bet that anything moving is "alive", and therefore full of blood, so this is a good strategy.
• Heat sensors - Mosquitoes can detect heat, so they can find warm-blooded mammals and birds very easily once they get close enough. That's why mosquitoes are so good at finding and biting you
Females of most species have tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) which can pierce the skin of the host in order to extract blood, which contains protein and iron needed to produce eggs. Thousands of mosquito species feed on the blood of various hosts (human , vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and some fish; and some invertebrates, primarily other arthropods.
Mosquitoes breed in standing water, so properties near ponds, marshes, and depressions that collect rainwater are at risk. Some mosquito species are active at different times of the day, but most emerge just before dusk and are active at night.
Mosquitoes can transmit several dangerous illnesses to humans.
Examples of viruses spread by mosquitoes:
• Eastern equine encephalitis
• Japanese encephalitis
• La Crosse encephalitis
• St. Louis encephalitis
• West Nile
• Yellow fever
Are mosquitoes more attracted to some people over others?
Yes. Studies have shows that certain factors have an effect on how attractive a person is to mosquitoes. Some of these, such as wearing dark colored clothing or perfume, can easily be avoided. Other factors like blood type, body temperature and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria on skin are unavoidable.
Mosquito control can be divided into two areas of responsibility: individual and public. Most often it's performed following the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM) concept. IMM is based on ecological, economic and social criteria and integrates multidisciplinary methodologies into pest management strategies that are practical and effective to protect public health and the environment and improve the quality of life. IMM strategies are employed in concert with insecticide. These include source reduction, which incorporates physical control (digging ditches and ponds in the target marsh) and biological control [placing live mosquito fish (Gambusia) in the ditches and ponds to eat mosquito larvae]. Other non-chemical control methods include invertebrate predators, parasites and diseases to control mosquito larvae. Adult mosquito biological control by means of birds,
Space sprays : Mosquitoes used to be killed inside the house and larvae on standing water by using a flit gun.
Outdoor Control :Homeowners, ranchers or businesses may use hand-held ULV foggers, portable or fogging attachments for tractors or lawn mowers for temporary relief from flying mosquitoes